# Optimal code generation for 1/2/3 address instructions

## Senthil Kumar <SRK106@PSUVM.PSU.EDU>Fri, 20 Oct 1995 16:16:44 GMT

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Optimal code generation for 1/2/3 address instructions SRK106@PSUVM.PSU.EDU (Senthil Kumar) (1995-10-20)
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 Newsgroups: comp.compilers From: Senthil Kumar Keywords: code, optimize, question Organization: Penn State University Date: Fri, 20 Oct 1995 16:16:44 GMT

I understand from [Brun76], [Aho77] that optimal code
generation for arbitrary expressions is NP-complete for one
address and two address instructions even if the number of
available registers is infinite.

Is this correct?

[Brun76] Bruno and Sethi, Code generation for a one-register machine.
[Aho77] Aho, Johnson and Ullamn, Code generation for expressions with
common subexpression.

In [Aho77] they mention that optimal code generation for
three address instructions, those of the from

r[i] <-- r[j] OP r[k]

is linear for arbitrary dags (sub-expressions
etc), *if* the number of available registers is infinite.

The approach is to simply evaluate the dag bottom up,
level by level, assigning a distinct register to each node.

I was wondering, if this is the reason that machines have
a three address instruction schema? Sparc, for eg.

i.e., using a three address schema, makes the problem a little
easier, in that we know we can produce optimal code if we have
infinite registers. So the problem is reduced to that of minimizing the
register needs for some expression?

Further, I assume this simplies the problem of code
scheduling (pipeline etc), which can be thought of as a superset
of the problem of producing optimal code under no pipleline constraints.

I would appreciate some insights, pointers, further reading etc
that some of you might have on what I have had to say.

thanks,
Senthil
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