Parallel computing history (version 2.1) (Greg Wilson)
Fri, 7 May 1993 18:01:32 GMT

          From comp.compilers

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Parallel computing history (version 2.1) (1993-05-07)
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Newsgroups: comp.parallel,comp.sys.super,comp.arch,comp.compilers
From: (Greg Wilson)
Followup-To: comp.parallel
Keywords: parallel
Organization: University of Alberta
Date: Fri, 7 May 1993 18:01:32 GMT

The file included below is a brief timeline-style history of the
development of parallel computing and supercomputing more generally, with
some notes on the appearance of theoretical ideas and compilation
techniques. It is still very incomplete, and may contain errors.

If you would like to help improve this document, please send formatted
entries to I am looking in particular for:

1) notes on the development of vectorisation and parallelisation
      techniques and tools;

2) information about parallel logic languages (Parlog, Strand88, and
      the like);

3) for information about STRETCH, ATLAS, STARAN, the BSP, and other
      influential projects of the 1960s and 1970s; and

4) for more entries about *significant* events in the histories of key
      companies, particularly Meiko, NCube, Convex, Intel, Encore, CDC,
      Fujitsu, Hitachi, and NEC.

                        Gregory V. Wilson Computing Science
               University of Alberta
                "Things fall apart; it's scientific." (David Byrne)




This document is a timeline of major developments in parallel computing.
It will eventually appear as part of a textbook on parallel programming,
but may also be separately published if there is sufficient interest.
All contributions and corrections are welcomed,
and should be sent to \verb``.



\item When submitting corrections or additions,
please submit {\em{only}\/} the new material,
not an edited copy of this whole document.
\item Please include your initials in every entry you submit,
and add them to every entry you change.
\item Please remember to put each item in the keyword listing
(field \#2 of each event entry) in braces,
so that they may be extracted automatically.
\item Please do not circulate this widely
until it reaches a stable state.




BMB & Bruce Boghosian & \verb`` \\
BRC & Brad Carlile & \verb`` \\
WD & Bill Dally & \verb`` \\
JF & Jim Flemming & \verb`` \\
WH & Willi Hasselbring & \verb`` \\
LSK & Larry Kaplan & \verb`` \\
YO & Yoshio Oyanagi & \verb`` \\
HSS & Harold Stone & \verb`` \\
PDT & Philip Tannenbaum & \verb`` \\
GVW & Greg Wilson & \verb`` (to July 1993)\\
& & \verb`` (permanent)\\
MW & Mike Wolfe & \verb``





\event{1956}{{IBM}, {Stretch}}{MW}
{IBM starts Stretch project with the goal of producing a machine
with 100 times the performance of the IBM 704,
initiated by Atomic Energy Commission at Los Alamos.}

\event{1959}{{IBM}, {Stretch}}{MW}
{IBM delivers first Stretch computer; less than 10 are ever built.}

\event{1960}{{CDC}, {Cray}, {CDC 6600}}{MW}
{Control Data starts development of CDC 6600.}

\event{1962}{{Petri}, {Petri-Nets}}{WH}
{C.~A.\ Petri describes Petri Nets.}

\event{1964}{{CDC}, {Cray}, {CDC 6600}}{GVW}
{Control Data Corporation produces CDC~6600,
the world's first commercial supercomputer.}
\event{1964}{{AEC}, {CDC}, {TI}, {Illiac}}{MW}
{Atomic Energy Commission urges manufacturers to look at ``radical''
machine structures.
This leads to CDC Star-100, TI ASC, and Illiac-IV.}
{Air Force signs Illiac-IV contract with University of Illinois.
The project is led by Daniel Slotnick;
primary subcontractors are Burroughs and Texas Instruments.}

\typeout{need project start date, delivery date for Star-100, TI ASC.}

\event{1966}{{Bernstein}, {compilation}, {data dependency}}{GVW}
{Bernstein introduces Bernstein's Condition
for statement independence,
which is foundation of subsequent work on data dependency analysis.}
\event{1966}{{Flynn}, {taxonomy}}{GVW}
{Flynn publishes paper describing architectural taxonomy.}

\event{1967}{{IBM}, {Tomasulo}, {IBM 360/91}}{MW}
{IBM produces the 360/91 with dynamic instruction reordering;
about 20 of these were produced over the next several years.}
{Amdahl publishes paper questioning feasibility of parallel processing;
his argument is later called ``Amdahl's Law''.}

\typeout{Significance of instruction re-ordering?? And who is Tomasulo?}

\event{1968}{{CDC}, {Cyberplus}}{MW}
{Group formed at Control Data to study computing needs for image
processing; this leads to AFP and Cyberplus designs.}
\event{1968}{{Dijkstra}, {semaphore}}{GVW}
{Edsger Dijkstra describes semaphores.}

\event{1969}{{CDC}, {Cray}, {CDC 7600}}{GVW}
{CDC produces CDC~7600 pipelined supercomputer.}

\event{1970}{{C.mmp}, {CMU}}{GVW}
{Development of C.mmp begins at Carnegie-Mellon.}
{Floating Point Systems Inc.\ founded
by former C~N~Winningstad and Tektronix employees
to manufacturer floating-point co-processors for minicomputers.}
\event{1970}{{DEC}, {asymmetric multiprocessor}}{JF}
{PDP-6/KA10 master/slave (asymmetric) multiprocessor
jointly developed by MIT and DEC.}
\event{197x}{{Goodyear}, {STARAN}}{MW}
{Goodyear Aerospace produces several models of the
STARAN associative processor.}

\typeout{Need details and dates for STARAN machine(s).}

{Intel produces 4004 microprocessor (world's first single-chip CPU).}
\event{1971}{{CDC}, {Cyberplus}}{}
{CDC delivers hardwired Cyberplus
parallel radar image processing system to Rome Air Development Center,
where it produces 250 times the performance of CDC~6600.}
\event{197x}{{TI}, {ASC}}{MW}
{Texas Instruments delivers the Advanced Scientific Computer
(also called Advanced Seismic Computer).
Seven of these machines were developed.
An aggressive automatic vectorizing Fortran compiler
was developed for this machine.}
\event{1971}{{Dijkstra}, {dining philisophers}}{WH}
{Edsger Dijkstra poses the dining philisophers problem which is often
used to test the expressivity of new parallel languages.}

\typeout{Need date for TI ASCI.}

\event{1972}{{Illiac-IV}, {NASA Ames}}{GVW}
{Quarter-sized (64 PEs) ILLIAC-IV installed at NASA Ames.}
\event{1972}{{BBN}, {Pluribus}}{GVW}
{BBN builds first Pluribus machines as ARPAnet switch nodes.}
\event{1972}{{CDC}, {CRI}}{GVW}
{Seymour Cray leaves Control Data Corporation,
founds Cray Research Inc.}
\event{1972}{{ICL}, {DAP}}{GVW}
{Paper studies of massive bit-level parallelism done
by Stewart Reddaway at ICL.
These later lead to development of ICL DAP.}
\event{1972}{{DEC}, {asymmetric multiprocessor}}{JF}
{Asymmetric multiprocessor operating system TOPS-10
developed by DEC for PDP-10 minicomputers.}

\event{1974}{{ICL}, {DAP}}{GVW}
{Work begins on prototype DAP (Distributed Array Processor) at ICL.}
{Design begins on Burroughs Scientific Processor (BSP).}
\event{1974}{{Denelcor}, {HEP}}{GVW}
{Burton Smith begins designing context-flow
Heterogeneous Element Processor (HEP) for Denelcor.}
\event{1974}{{Hoare}, {monitors}}{GVW}
{Tony Hoare describes monitors.}

\event{1975}{{CMU}, {Cm*}}{GVW}
{Work begins at Carnegie-Mellon University on Cm*,
with support from DEC.}
\event{1975}{{Intel}, {iAPX 432}}{GVW}
{Design of iAPX 432 (symmetric multiprocessor) begins at Intel.}
\event{1975}{{CDC}, {Cyber}}{MW}
{Cyber~200 project begins at Control Data.}
{Illiac-IV becomes operational at NASA Ames after concerted
check out effort.}
\event{1975}{{Dijkstra}, {guarded commands}}{WH}
{Edsger Dijkstra describes guarded commands.}

\event{1976}{{CRI}, {Cray-1}}{MW}
{First Cray-1 delivered to Los Alamos National Laboratory.}
\event{1976}{{CDC}, {Flexible Processor}}{MW}
{Control Data delivers Flexible Processor,
a programmable signal processing unit.}
\event{1976}{{FPS}, {array processor}, {LIW}}{BRC}
{Floating Point Systems Inc.\ delivers 38-bit AP-120B
array processor that issues multiple pipelined instructions
every cycle.}
\event{1976}{{FPS}, {software pipelining}, {array processor}}{BRC}
{Floating Point Systems Inc.\ describes loop wrapping,
later called software pipelining,
to program pipelined multiple instruction issue processors.}

\typeout{Relevance of CDC Flexible Processor?}

\event{1977}{{CMU}, {C.mmp}}{GVW}
{C.mmp hardware completed at Carnegie-Mellon University
(crossbar connecting minicomputers to memories).}
\event{1977}{{Goodyear}, {MPP}}{MW}
{Massively Parallel Processor project first discussed at NASA
for fast image processing.}

\event{1978}{{BBN}, {Butterfly}}{GVW, HSS}
{BBN begins design of distributed-shared memory machine
based around ``butterfly'' switch,
with its roots in work on perfect-shuffle networks by Stone (1972)
and on Omega networks by Lawrie (1975).}
\event{1978}{{Fortune}, {Wyllie}, {PRAM}}{GVW}
{Fortune and Wyllie publish paper describing the PRAM model.}
\event{1978}{{Lamport}, {virtual time}}{GVW}
{Leslie Lamport describes algorithm for creating
partial order on distributed events.}
\event{1978}{{Hoare}, {CSP}}{WH}
{Tony Hoare describes CSP.}

\typeout{CHoPP developed by Sullivan??}

\event{1979}{{ICL}, {DAP}}{GVW}
{ICL DAP delivered to Queen Mary College, London ---
world's first commercial massively parallel computer.}
{Inmos set up by British government to develop and produce
memory chips and microprocessors.}
\event{1979}{{Denelcor}, {HEP}}{GVW}
{First single-processor prototype of Denelcor HEP operational.}
\event{1979}{{Kermani}, {Kleinrock}, {virtual cut-through}, {message routing}}{GVW}
{Parviz Kermani and Leonard Kleinrock describe
the virtual cut-through technique for message routing.}

{Teradata spun off from Citibank to develop
parallel database query computers.}
\event{1980}{{ICL}, {DAP}}{GVW}
{First generation DAP computers delivered by ICL.}
{Burroughs Scientific Processor project cancelled
after one sale but before delivery.}
{Mitsui Shipbuilding Company installs
a 32-processor ring array called PPA
at Hokkaido University, Japan.}
\event{1980}{{DEC}, {symmetric multiprocessor}}{JF}
{DEC develops KL10 TOPS-10 based symmetric multiprocessor
(up to three CPUs supported,
but a customer built a five-CPU system).}
\event{1980}{{Schwartz}, {ultracomputer}}{HSS}
{J.~T.\ Schwartz publishes paper describing and analysing
the ultracomputer model,
in which processors are connected in a shuffle/exchange graph.}

\event{1981}{{FPS}, {FPS-164}, {array processor}, {LIW}, {mini-supercomputer}}{BRC}
{Floating Point Systems Inc.\ delivers 64-bit FPS-164
array processor that issues multiple pipelined instructions
every cycle,
start of mini-supercomputer market.}
\event{1981}{{Caltech}, {hypercube}, {Seitz}, {Fox}}{GVW}
{Carver Mead gives seminar on massive parallelism at
California Institute of Technology;
inspires development of Cosmic Cube hypercube at Caltech
by group led by Charles Seitz (computer science)
and Geoffrey Fox (physics).}
\event{1981}{{BBN}, {Butterfly}}{GVW}
{First BBN Butterfly delivered ---
68000s connected through multistage network to disjoint memories,
giving appearance of shared memory.}
\event{1981}{{Intel}, {iAPX 432}}{GVW}
{iAPX~432 prototype completed; Intel abandons project.}
\event{1981}{{DEC}, {VAX}, {asymmetric multiprocessor}}{JF}
{DEC produces VAX~11/782 asymmetric multiprocessor.}
\event{1981}{{CDC}, {Cyber}}{MW}
{Control Data delivers Cyber~205 vector supercomputer.}
\event{1981}{{Preparata}, {Vuillemin}, {cube-connected cycles}}{GVW}
{Franco Preparata and Jean Vuillemin describe
the cube-connected cycles topology.}

\typeout{need delivery date for Cyber 205, I think 1981.}

\event{1982}{{Alliant}, {Convex}}{GVW}
{Alliant and Convex founded to pursue mini-supercomputer market.}
\event{1982}{{CRI}, {Cray-X/MP}}{GVW}
{Steve Chen's group at Cray Research produces first
X/MP machine (2 pipelined processors with shared memory).}
\event{1982}{{Caltech}, {hypercube}, {MPI}}{GVW}
{Cosmic Cube hypercube prototype operational at Caltech;
first predecessor of CrOS (Crystalline Operating System) running.}
\event{198?}{{Alliant}, {FX/8}}{GVW}
{Alliant delivers first FX/8 vector multiprocessor machines
using a custom implementation of an
extended Motorola 68020 instruction set.}
\event{1982}{{Denelcor}, {HEP}}{GVW}
{First Denelcor HEPs installed in US.}
{Illiac-IV decommissioned.}
\event{1982}{{S-810}, {Hitachi}}{YO}
{Hitachi introduces S-810/10 and S-810/20 vector supercomputers.}
\event{1982}{{CDC}, {AFP}}{MW}
{Control Data improves Flexible Processor to make
Advanced Flexible Processor.}

\typeout{Significance of CDC AFP??}

{DARPA starts Strategic Computing Initiative, which helps fund
such machines as Thinking Machines Connection Machine,
BB\&N Butterfly, WARP from Carnegie Mellon University
and iWarp from Intel Corp.}
\event{1983}{{Encore}, {Sequent}, {Intel}, {iAPX 432}}{GVW}
{Encore founded;
Sequent founded by former members of Intel iAPX~432 project.}
\event{1983}{{Caltech}, {hypercube}, {NCube}}{GVW}
{Full Cosmic Cube hypercube running at Caltech;
work begins on Mark~II.
John Palmer (of Intel) sees Caltech machines,
and leaves Intel to found NCube.}
{Myrias Research founded as spin-off from University of Alberta
to build shared-memory mini-supercomputers.}
{Scientific Computer Systems founded to design
and market a Cray-compatible minisupercomputer.}
{Thinking Machines Corporation founded;
Sheryl Handler selects Danny Hillis' Ph.D.\ thesis project
as basis for massively-parallel AI supercomputer.}
\event{1983}{{CDC}, {ETA}}{GVW}
{ETA Systems, Inc. spun off from CDC
to develop a new generation of vector supercomputers.}
\event{1983}{{Fujitsu}, {VP-200}}{YO}
{Fujitsu ships first VP-200 vector supercomputer.}
\event{1983}{{NEC}, {SX-1}}{YO}
{NEC introduces SX-1 vector supercomputer.}
\event{1983}{{Goodyear}, {MPP}}{MW}
{Massively Parallel Processor delivered by Goodyear Aerospace
to NASA Goddard.}
\event{1983}{{DEC}, {symmetric multiprocessor}, {VAX}}{JF}
{Loosely-coupled VAXclusters supported by DEC's VMS operating system.}

\typeout{Need details on Goodyear MPP.}

\event{1984}{{Intel}, {hypercube}}{GVW}
{Intel Scientific Computers set up by Justin Rattner
to produce commercial hypercube machines.}
\event{1984}{{Caltech}, {hypercube}}{GVW}
{Unimpressed with available commercial machines,
Caltech begins work on Mark~III hypercube.}
{Multiflow founded by Fisher and others from Yale
to produce very long instruction word (VLIW) supercomputers.}
\event{1984}{{CRI}, {Cray-X/MP}}{GVW}
{Cray X/MP family expanded to include 1 and 4 processors.}
{Mitsui Shipbuilding Company installs a two-dimensional toroidal
array of processors, PAX-64J,
at the University of Tsukuba, Japan.}
\event{1984}{{Mehlhorn}, {Vishkin}, {PRAM}, {emulation}}{GVW}
{Kurt Mehlhorn and Udi Vishkin describe how various classes of PRAM
can simulate one another.
This work forms the basis for Valiant's later work
on random routing and optimality.}

\event{1985}{{FPS}, {FPS-264}, {array processor},{mini-supercomputer}}{BRC}
{Floating Point Systems Inc.\ delivers FPS-264,
an ECL version of 64-bit FPS-164 array processor that issues
multiple pipelined instructions every cycle.}
\event{1985}{{Convex}, {C1}}{MW}
{Convex ships first single-processor C1 mini-supercomputer.}
\event{1985}{{CRI}, {Cray-2}}{GVW}
{Cray Research produces Cray-2,
with four background processors,
a single foreground processor,
and a 4.1 nsec clock cycle.}
{Denelcor closes doors.}
\event{1985}{{Intel}, {iPSC/1}}{GVW}
{Intel produces first iPSC/1 hypercube
(80286 processors connected through Ethernet controllers).}
\event{1985}{{Inmos}, {transputer}, {Supernode}, {Meiko}}{GVW}
{Inmos produces first (integer) T414 transputer.
Members of implementation group leave to found Meiko,
which demonstrates its first transputer-based Computing Surface
at SIGGRAPH that year.
ESPRIT Supernode project begun to produce floating-point transputer.}
\event{1985}{{NCube}, {NCube/10}}{GVW}
{NCube produces first NCube/10 hypercube
using custom processors.}
\event{1985}{{Teradata}, {DBC/1012}}{GVW}
{Teradata ships first DBC/1012 parallel database query engine
(Intel 8086 processors connected by proprietary tree network).}
\event{1985}{{CDC}, {Cyberplus}}{MW}
{Ring-connected multiprocessor delivered by Control Data,
called the Cyberplus.}
{Stellar Computer, Inc., founded by Bill Poduska, former
Apollo Computer founder, to build single-user high-performance
graphics workstations.}
{Ardent Computer founded by Allen Michels, former founder
of Convergent Technologies, and Gorden Bell, formerly of DEC,
to build machines in competition with Stellar.}
{Supertek Computers, Inc. is founded by Mike Fung,
former Hewlett Packard RISC project manager.}
\event{1985}{{Fujitsu}, {VP-400}}{YO}
{Fujitsu introduces VP-400 vector supercomputer.}
\event{1985}{{NEC}, {SX-2}}{PDT}
{First NEC SX-2 vector supercomputer shipped
(6.0 ns clock,
capable of producing 8 floating point results per clock cycle,
up to 256 MByte memory).}
\event{1985}{{Gelernter}, {Linda}}{GVW}
{David Gelernter publishes description of Linda language.
Key elements of this later re-appear as
the Linda parallel programming system.}
\event{1985}{{Multilisp}, {Halstead}, {futures}}{GVW}
{Robert Halstead introudces futures
in a paper describing the implementation of Multilisp.}
\event{1985}{{Jefferson}, {timewarp}, {simulation}}{GVW}
{David Jefferson describes how virtual time and time warping
can be used as a basis for speculative distributed simulations.}
\event{1985}{{Pfister}, {Norton}, {hot spots}, {message combining}}{GVW}
{Pfister and Norton analyse effect of hot spots
in multistage networks,
and describe how message combining can ameliorate their effect.}
\event{1985}{{TMC}, {CM-1}}{BMB}
{TMC demonstrates first CM-1 Connection Machine to DARPA.}
\event{1985}{{Dally}, {Seitz}, {wormhole routing}, {virtual channels}}{WD}
{Dally and Seitz develop model of wormhole routing,
invent virtual channels, and show how to perform
deadlock-free routing using virtual channels.}

\typeout{Relevance of Stellar/Ardent?}
\typeout{Why not mention SGI? (or why mention any graphics workstations?)}
\typeout{What about Ametek, or Symult?}
\typeout{American Supercomputers, Inc., for a short time, comes in here.}
\typeout{What did/does Supertek do?}

\event{1986}{{Sequent}, {Balance}}{GVW}
{Sequent produces first shared-memory Balance multiprocessors,
using NS32032 microprocessors
and proprietary DYNIX symmetric operating system.}
{Scientific Computer Systems delivers first SCS-40,
a Cray-compatible minisupercomputer.}
\event{1986}{{AMT}, {ICL}, {DAP}}{GVW}
{Active Memory Technology spun off from ICL to develop DAP products.}
{BBN forms Advanced Computers Inc.\ subsidiary (BBN ACI)
to develop and market Butterfly machines.}
\event{1986}{{FPS}, {T-series}, {transputer}}{BRC}
{Floating Point Systems introduces T-series hypercuben
(Weitek floating-point units coupled to transputers),
and ships 128-processor system to Los Alamos.}
\event{1986}{{TMC}, {CM-1}}{GVW}
{Thinking Machines Corp. ships first Connection Machine CM-1
(up to 65536 single-bit processors connected in hypercube).}
\event{1986}{{Encore}, {Multimax}}{GVW}
{Encore ships first bus-based Multimax computer
(NS32032 processors coupled with Weitek floating-point accelerators).}
\event{1986}{{hypercube}, {MPI}}{GVW}
{CrOS~III, Cubix (file-system handler) and Plotix (graphics handler)
running on Caltech hypercubes.}
{Culler Scientific Systems Corp. (founded by Glenn Culler)
describes the Culler~7 minisupercomputer.}
\typeout{Relevance/importance of Culler~7?}
\event{1986}{{DEC}, {symmetric multiprocessor}, {VAX}}{JF}
{Symmetric multiprocessing supported by VMS.}
{Henry Burkhardt, former Data General and Encore founder,
forms Kendall Square Research Corporation (KSR)
to build custom multiprocessor.}
\event{1986}{{Dally}, {k-ary n-cubes}, {hypercubes}, {wormhole routing}}{WD}
{Dally shows that low-dimensional k-ary n-cubes are more
wire-efficient than hypercubes for typical values of network
bisection, message length, and module pinout.
Dally demonstrates the torus routing chip, the first
low-dimensional wormhole routing component.}
\event{1989}{{Li}, {shared virtual memory}}{GVW}
{Kai Li describes system for emulated shared virtual memory.}

{ETA produces first air- and liquid nitrogen-cooled versions
of ${\rm{ETA}}^{10}$ multiprocessor supercomputer.}
\event{1987}{{Myrias}, {SPS-1}}{GVW}
{Myrias produces prototype (68000-based) SPS-1.}
\event{1987}{{Caltech}, {hypercube}}{GVW}
{Caltech Mark~III hypercube completed (68020 with wormhole routing).}
\event{1987}{{TMC}, {CM-2}}{GVW}
{TMC introduces CM-2 Connection Machine
(64k single-bit processors connected in hypercube,
plus 2048 Weitek floating point units).}
\event{1987}{{Multiflow}, {Trace/200}}{GVW}
{Multiflow delivers first Trace/200 VLIW machines
(256 to 1024 bits per instruction).}
\event{1987}{{Express}, {ParaSoft}, {hypercube}, {MPI}}{GVW}
{ParaSoft spun off from hypercube group at Caltech
to produce commercial version of CrOS-like MPI.}
\event{1987}{{CRI}, {SSI}}{MW}
{Steve Chen leaves Cray Research to found
Supercomputer Systems, Inc.
SSI is later funded by IBM to build
large-scale parallel supercomputer.}
\event{1987}{{Seitz}, {Ametek}, {Ametek-2010}, {wormhole routing}}{WD}
{Seitz, working at Ametek, builds the Ametek-2010,
the first parallel computer
   using a 2-D mesh interconnect with wormhole routing.}

\typeout{Univac delivered an ISP (Integrated Scientific Processor,
a vector processor) around this time.}
\typeout{Astronautics delivers the ZS-1 computer system around this time,
based on research at Univ. Wisconsin on
the Decoupled Access/Execute architecture.}

\event{1988}{{CRI}, {Cray-Y/MP}}{GVW}
{CRI produces first Y/MP multiprocessor vector supercomputer.}
\event{1988}{{AMT}, {DAP}}{GVW}
{AMT delivers first re-engineered DAP
(1024 single-bit processors connected in torus).}
\event{1988}{{Intel}, {iPSC/2}}{GVW}
{Intel produces iPSC/2 hypercube
(80386/7 chip-set with wormhole routing).}
\event{1988}{{DEC}, {MasPar}}{MW}
{MasPar Computer Corp. founded by former DEC executive Jeff Kalb
to develop bit-serial massively-parallel machines.}
\event{1988}{{Inmos}, {transputer}}{GVW}
{Inmos produces first T800 floating-point transputer;
Parsys and Telmat set up to exploit results of
ESPRIT Supernode project,
and begin marketing T800-based machines.}
\event{1988}{{Sequent}, {Symmetry}}{GVW}
{Sequent produces 80386-based Symmetry bus-based multiprocessor.}
\event{1988}{{ParaSoft}, {Express}, {MPI}, {Caltech}, {DIME}}{GVW}
{ParaSoft releases first commercial version of Express MPI;
first version of DIME (Distributed Irregular Mesh Environment)
up and running at Caltech.}
\event{1988}{{FPS}, {Celerity}}{BRC}
                {Floating Point Systems Inc.\ changes name to FPS Computing,
buys Celerity Computing assets,
and produces Model 500 (Celerity 6000)
mini-supercomputer with multiple scalar and vector processors.}
\event{1988}{{Stellar}, {Ardent}}{GVW}
{Ardent and Stellar begin delivering single-user graphics
engineering workstations.}
\event{1988}{{Hitachi}, {S-820}}{YO}
{Hitachi ships first S-820 vector supercomputer.}
\event{1988}{{scalability}, {Gustafson}}{GVW}
{John Gustafson and others demonstrate that
Amdahl's Law can be broken
by scaling up problem size.}
{Tera Computer Co.\ founded by Burton Smith and James Rottsolk to
develop and market a new multi-threaded parallel computer,
similar to the Denelcor HEP.}

\typeout{Relevance of graphics workstation manufacturers?}

\event{1989}{{Multiflow}, {Trace/300}}{MW}
{Multiflow produces second-generation Trace/300 machines.}
\event{1989}{{CDC}, {ETA}}{MW}
{Control Data shuts down ETA Systems in April;
National Science Foundation subsequently shuts down
the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center at Princeton,
which was operating an ETA-10.}
\event{1989}{{CRI}, {CCC}}{GVW}
{Seymour Cray leaves Cray Research to found
Cray Computer Corporation.}
\event{1989}{{BBN}, {TC2000}}{GVW}
{BBN ACI delivers first 88000-based TC2000
distributed shared-memory multiprocessor.}
\event{1989}{{Myrias}, {SPS-2}}{GVW}
{Myrias sell first 68020-based SPS-2
shared-memory multiprocessor.}
\event{1989}{{Meiko}, {Computing Surface}}{GVW}
{Meiko begin using SPARC and Intel i860 processors
to supplement T800s in their Computing Surface machines.}
\event{1989}{{NCube}, {NCube/2}}{MW}
{NCube produces second-generation NCube/2 hypercubes,
again using custom processors.}
\event{1989}{{Concurrent}, {Supercomputer Solutions}}{MW}
{Concurrent Computer Corp. and General Microelectronics
form a 50-50 venture names Supercomputer Solutions, Inc.,
to develop the Navier-Stokes computer developed at Princeton Univ.}
\event{1989}{{Fujitsu}, {VP2000}}{GVW}
{Fujitsu begins production of single-processor VP2000
vector supercomputers.}
{Scientific Computer Systems stops selling its SCS-40
Cray-compatible computer system.
SCS continues to sell high-speed token ring network.}
{Evans and Sutherland announce the ES-1 parallel computer.
Two systems are delivered, to the University of Colorado and
CalTech. The division is later shut down
during the Supercomputing '89 conference, even while
they had a booth in the convention center in Reno.}
\event{1989}{{Stellar}, {Ardent}, {Stardent}}{MW}
{Stellar and Ardent announce they will merge, forming
Stardent Computers.}
\typeout{Relevance of graphics workstation vendors?}
{Supertek Computers, Inc., delivers its S-1 Cray-compatible
minisupercomputer; eventually 10 of these are sold.}
\event{1989}{{Valiant}, {random routing}, {PRAM}, {emulation}}{GVW}
{Valiant argues that random routing and latency hiding
can allow physically-realizable machines
to emulate PRAMs in optimal time.}

{Multiflow closes doors in April after several deals
with other companies fall through.}
\event{1990}{{Alliant}, {FX/2800}}{GVW}
{Alliant delivers first FX/2800 i860-based multiprocessors.}
\event{1990}{{Fujitsu}, {NEC}, {Hitachi}, {HPPS}}{OY}
{In a project led by MITI,
Fujitsu, Hitachi, and NEC build
a testbed parallel vector supercomputer containing
four Fujitsu VP2600s,
NEC's shared memory,
and Hitachi software.}
\event{1990}{{Intel}, {iPSC/860}}{GVW}
{Intel produces i860-based hypercubes.}
\event{1990}{{CCC}, {Cray-3}, {NERSC}}{MW}
{National Energy Research Supercomputer Center (NERSC)
places \$42 million order with Cray Computer Corporation
for Cray-3 supercomputer.
The order includes a unique 8-processor
Cray-2 computer system that is installed in April.}
{The two ETA-10 systems at the closed John von Neumann
Supercomputer Center are destroyed with sledge hammers,
in order to render them useless, after no buyers are found.}
\event{1990}{{MasPar}, {MP-1}}{GVW}
{First MasPar MP-1 delivered
(up to 16k 4-bit processors connected in 8-way mesh).}
\event{1990}{{Cray}, {Supertek}}{MW}
{Cray Research, Inc., purchased Supertek Computers Inc.,
makers of the S-1, a minisupercomputer compatible
with the Cray X-MP.}
\event{1990}{{NEC}, {SX-3}}{PDT}
{NEC ships SX-3,
the first Japanese parallel vector supercomputer
(up to 4 processors, each with up to 4 pipeline sets,
a 2.9 ns clock,
and up to 4 Gbyte of memory).}
\event{1990}{Fujitsu, VP-2600}{YO}
{Fujitus ships first VP-2600 vector supercomputer.}
\event{1990}{{QCDPAX}, {Anritsu}}{YO}
{University of Tsukuba completes 432 processor machine QCDPAX
in collaboration with Anritsu Corporation.}
\event{1990}{{APR}, {FORGE}, {MIMDizer}, {PSR}}{BMB}
{Applied Parallel Resarch (APR) spun off from
Pacific-Sierra Research (PSR) to develop FORGE and MIMDizer
parallelization tools,
and upgrade them to handle Fortran~90.}
\event{1990}{{data-parallel languages}, {TMC}, {AMT}}{1990}
{TMC and AMT sign co-operative agreement to standardize languages.}
\event{1990}{{Dally}, {J-Machine}, {Actors model}}
{MIT J-Machine demonstrates message-driven network
interface that reduces overhead of message handling.}

\event{1991}{{CRI}, {Cray-Y/MP C90}}{GVW}
{CRI produces first Y/MP~C90.}
{HAL Computer Systems started by former IBM RS/6000 workers
to build high speed Sparc microprocessor.}
\typeout{Should HAL entry be ``multiprocessor'', not ``microprcoessor''?}
{Myrias closes doors.}
{BBN shuts down its Advanced Computers, Inc. (ACI) subsidiary,
though it continues to sell TC-2000 computers.}
{Kendall Square Research starts to deliver 32-processor
KSR-1 computer systems.}
{Stardent, formed by merger in 1989, announces it will sell off
its business and shut its doors.
The graphics computer line (the former Ardent architecture)
is eventually taken over by Kubota Pacific Computer Corp.}
\event{1991}{{Bailey}, {benchmarking}}{GVW}
{David Bailey publishes complaint about abuse of benchmarks,
particularly by parallel computer vendors.}
\event{1991}{{Ranade}, {butterfly}, {PRAM}, {emulation}}{GVW}
{Abhiram Ranade describes how message combining,
butterfly networks,
and a complicated routing algorithm
can emulate PRAMs in near-optimal time.}
\event{1991}{{TMC}, {CM-200}}{BMB}
{Thinking Machines Corporation produces CM-200 Connection Machine,
an upgraded CM-2.
MIMD CM-5 announced.}

\event{1992}{{Gibson}, {RAID}}{GVW}
{Garth Gibson's thesis on redundant arrays of inexpensive disks
(RAID) published.}
\typeout{Need earlier references to RAID concepts.}
{AMT bankrupt; revived as AMT Cambridge Ltd.}
\event{1992}{{FPS}, {CRI}}{BRC}
                {FPS Computing bankrupt; selected assets bought by CRI,
and Cray Research Superservers (CRS) subsidiary formed.}
\event{1992}{{CCC}, {Cray-3}}{MW}
{National Energy Research Supercomputer Center (NERSC)
at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
cancels contract to buy Cray-3 from Cray Computer Corp.}
{Kendall Square Research announces KSR-1 after testing
a system with 128 processors and a second level ring interconnect.}
{MasPar Computer starts delivering its second generation machine,
the MP-2.}
\event{1992}{{PCN}, {Chandy}, {Taylor}}{GVW}
{Chandy and Taylor describe PCN,
a parallel programming system similar to Strand~88,
based on dataflow and logic programming.}
\event{1992}{{TMC}, {CM-5}}{BMB}
{Thinking Machines Corporation produces first CM-5,
containing up to 1024 Sparc microprocessors
connected in a fat tree topology,
each with up to 4 vector units
manufactured by Texas Instruments.
A RAID system for the CM-5 is also announced.}

\event{1993}{{J-Machine}, {MIT}, {Caltech}, {Actors model}}{WD}
{512-node J-Machines (message-driven multicomputers) operational
at MIT and Caltech.}
{IBM stops funding of Supercomputer Systems Inc.;
company shuts down.}
\event{1993}{{CCC}, {Cray-3}}{MW}
{Cray Computer Corp. announces availability of Cray-3.}
\event{1993}{{Meiko}, {LLNL}}{GVW}
{Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)
announces intention to purchase CS-2 Computing Surface from Meiko,
the first major purchase by a U.S.\ national laboratory
from a vendor with roots outside the U.S.}
\event{1993}{{Fujitsu}, {NWT}, {VPP-500}}{YO}
{Fujitsu installs 140-processor NWT (Numerical Wind Tunnel),
a prototype of a highly-parallel vector supercomputer
to be called VPP-500.}
\event{1993}{{NEC}, {CENJU-3}}{PDT}
{NEC produces Cenju-3,
containing up to 256 VR4400SC (MIPS R4000 runalike) processors
connected by an Omega network.}


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